The Cote D’Ivoire and Ghana coastal upwellings: Dynamics and changes
This document is a review of the facts and theories about the origin and mechanisms of the seasonal upwellings occurring off the Cote D’Ivoire and Ghana. The two seasons of upwellings, the major during boreal summer and the minor during the boreal winter are considered. New insights show that the impact of wind, although being not the unique cause of upwelling appear to be different, complex and not definitely explained. Long term environmental changes could have affected the minor upwelling in a small way, but it could be sufficient for inducing changes in the Sardinella populations during the last decade.