Effects of industrial waste effluents discharged into Sakumo II lagoon in Accra Ghana
Wetlands are among the most productive life support systems in the world and are of immense socio-economic and ecological importance to mankind. Despite the ecological and environmental services they provide, urbanization, and over–exploitation of resources are taking a serious toll on wetland resources within urban areas. The aim of this study was to establish the current pollution status of the Sakumo II Lagoon, as well as investigate the influence of effluent discharge from industrial activities on the quality of water in the lagoon. Social survey was also conducted to assess people’s awareness and knowledge on the lagoon and wetland importance. Water samples were collected from three sections (South, Mid and North) of the Sakumo ll lagoon for a period of six (6) months and industrial effluents from three industries (Coca Cola Bottling Company, Kasapreko and Printex) for three (3) months and analyzed for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, electrical conductivity, NO3-N, PO4-P, NO-N and NH4N. Results obtained were compared with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Ghana permissible guideline values of 2002 for effluents discharged into water bodies and mean values from similar studies on the lagoon. One way ANOVA test indicated that the pH and turbidity of the lagoon water were the parameters of the water quality most significantly affected (p< 0.05) by pollution in both seasons. TSS (112.1 mg/l), TDS (371.2 mg/l) and conductivity (741.1 µS/cm) were however not affected by pollution and values were statistically similar (p>0.05). Compared to EPA–permissible values, concentrations of nitrate and ammonia for both water and effluent samples were high. Based on these results, the Sakumo II lagoon could therefore be described as relatively polluted with nutrient load and the influence of anthropogenic activities. It is therefore recommended that there should be improvement in sanitation facilities and enforcement of regulations on the protection of the lagoon and wetland resources.