Physico-chemical characteristics of water samples from selected water bodies in and around Accra, Ghana
Environmental degradation through industrial, agricultural and domestic activities is a major public health issue globally. The discharge of domestic and industrial effluents without prior treatment has led to the pollution of water bodies in and around Accra in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Water quality can be ascertained via the analysis of various physical and chemical parameters. The present study determined the physico-chemical characteristics (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, turbidity, true colour) and concentrations of selected heavy metals (cadmium, copper, manganese and lead) of water samples from four water bodies in and around Accra. The values of the physico-chemical parameters indicate that the four water bodies are heavily polluted with the level of pollution, especially in the Korle Lagoon, increasing over the period. Out of the four heavy metals analysed, the Kpeshie lagoon was mainly polluted with cadmium, copper and manganese whilst cadmium, copper and lead were found in the Korle Lagoon. The Chemu Lagoon was highly contaminated with cadmium and copper whilst the Odaw River was highly contaminated with manganese and lead.