Observations on the reproductive biology of the shad, Ethmalosa fimhriata (Bowdich), in the coastal waters of Cape Coast, Ghana
The gonads of Ethmalosa fimbriata have been classified according to five and four maturity stages in the male and female, respectively. The species appears to mature at 22.0 cm in Ghana waters. The fecundity and frequency distribution of oocytes have been determined. Monthly changes in the proportions of gonadal stages and gonadosomatie index indicate that the species spawns in the sea from October to March. The results have been compared with data on populations occurring in other West African countries.